Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy of
In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational
psychologists who developed a classification of levels of
intellectual behavior important in learning. This became a
taxonomy including three overlapping domains; the cognitive, affective
Cognitive learning is
demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills:
comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and
synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among
alternatives in problem-solving, and evaluating ideas or actions.
This domain on the acquisition and use of knowledge is
predominant in the majority of courses. Bloom identified six
levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or
recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly
more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order
which is classified as evaluation. Verb examples that represent
intellectual activity on each level are listed here, and each
level is linked to questions appropriate to the level.
- Knowledge: arrange,
define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order,
recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state.
classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify,
indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review,
apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate,
interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve,
- Analysis: analyze,
appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast,
criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish,
examine, experiment, question, test.
- Synthesis: arrange,
assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design,
develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare,
propose, set up, write.
appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend
estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support,
Affective learning is
demonstrated by behaviors indicating attitudes of awareness,
interest, attention, concern, and responsibility, ability to
listen and respond in interactions with others, and ability to
demonstrate those attitudinal characteristics or values which are
appropriate to the test situation and the field of study. This
domain relates to emotions, attitudes, appreciations, and values,
such as enjoying, conserving, respecting, and supporting. Verbs
applicable to the affective domain include accepts, attempts,
challenges, defends, disputes, joins, judges, praises, questions,
shares, supports, and volunteers.
Psychomotor learning is
demonstrated by physical skills; coordination, dexterity,
manipulation, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate
the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or
tools, or actions which evidence gross motor skills such as the
use of the body in dance or athletic performance. Verbs
applicable to the psychomotor domain include bend, grasp, handle,
operate, reach, relax, shorten, stretch, write, differentiate (by
touch), express (facially), perform (skillfully).
- identification and
- recall of information
- Who, what, when, where,
- translating from one medium to
- describing in one's own words;
- organization and selection of
facts and ideas
- problem solving;
- applying information to produce
- use of facts, rules and principles
- How is...an example of...?
- How is...related to...?
- Why is...significant?
- subdividing something to show how
it is put together;
- finding the underlying structure
of a communication;
- identifying motives;
- separation of a whole into
- What are the parts or
- Classify...according to...
- How does...compare/contrast
- What evidence can you list
- creating a unique, original
product that may be in verbal form or may be a
- combination of ideas to form a new
- What would you predict/infer
- What ideas can you add to...?
- How would you create/design
- What might happen if you
- What solutions would you
- making value decisions about
- resolving controversies or
differences of opinion;
- development of opinions,
judgements or decisions
- Do you agree...?
- What do you think about...?
- What is the most important...?
- Place the following in
order of priority...
- How would you decide about...?
- What criteria would you
use to assess...?